The main source used is that indicated by decree 33/2013: the Transparent Administration section (AT) in the Public Administration websites, which has the merit of having made a first form of standardization possible in their assessment.
The problem is that, often, the data subject to the obligation of publication are not published promptly, neither on a periodic basis, nor in a complete way, nor according to the scheme established by the same decree. Of course, some PAs publish more promptly than others, but not all data: this means that the budget can be updated, but not, for example, the average payment times. Hence the need to identify the year in which the whole sample can be measured homogeneously.
In addition to the Transparent Administration, the sources used include:
the databases of the MEF, the Ministry of the Interior, the Court of Auditors, Istat; the site of the Anac and that of the Ministry of Public Administration; annual reports such as those of Legambiente; search engines; the news appeared in the national and local media.
The use of civic access and generalized access is assessed on a case-by-case basis. In fact, there is no systematic request for data directly to the single Administration analyzed: on the one hand, because it is information that must be published by law; on the other, because the request should be implicit, regardless of the regulatory provisions, in the duty of accountability that the PAs have towards stakeholders.
Some PAs fully comply with transparency obligations, others only as a mere fulfillment. The Public Rating takes this into account, providing for a score of zero where an information subject to mandatory publication has not been published.
The choice to evaluate the Public Administrations on the basis of the available data also arises as an incentive: the most transparent Administrations are assigned better Ratings and this can constitute an incentive for the others to improve their transparency for reputational purposes and for consensus among citizens.